Some useful HTML tags for WordPress

If you look in the upper-right-hand corner of the WordPress editor, you’ll notice tabs that toggle between a visual/WYSIWYG mode (What you see is what you get, that is) and a text-based display. In the text mode, you can hand-code html tags. WordPress will hide some of the tags from you when it deems them redundant. For example, the <p> and </p> tags, for paragraphs, are only displayed when they include a style modification.

Screenshot 2014-02-24 13.23.05

HTML/XHTML tags have a few simple rules:

  1. Tags are enclosed in angle brackets, and they mark portions of a text. An opening tag (<li>, for example) opens the portion of text, and a close tag (</li>, for example), closes the portion of the text. In XHTML, every tag must be closed. Some tags, like image tags, don’t enclose text. You can close these tags with a slash inside the opening tag (like <img />).
  2. In XHTML, all tags are in lowercase.
  3. Tags can be nested within each other, but you each needs to be closed within its context. That is, you can do something like <em><strong></strong></em>, but not <em><strong></em></strong>.

Some tags that can help you understand/change what you’re seeing in the text editor:

  1. <em> stands for emphasis, and usually makes something italic. That is, <em>example</em> will display as example.
  2. <strong> means bold, so <strong>example</strong> will display as strong.
  3. Links are marked with an “anchor” tag, <a>. The key attribute of an anchor tag is an “href,” or “hypertext reference.” If I want to link to Google, for example, I would use this syntax: <a href=””>Google</a>, which would result in a link like this: Google.
  4. To link to images, use an <img> tag.  The key attribute here is “src,” for “source.” When you upload media to WordPress, it’ll figure out the location of your image for you. But one can also link to an external image. For example, if I wanted to show the image on Google’s front page, I might use <img src=”” /> to display
  5. Using <br />, you can force a break in the text. Inserting <br /> between “hi” and “bye,” for example, will result in
  6. HTML has built-in tags for lists. For an ordered (numbered) list, you use <ol>, and for an unordered (bulleted) list, you use <ul>. Each list item is enclosed in an <li> and </li>. So, for example, <ol><li>apples</li><li>oranges</li><li>bananas</li></ol> displays as
    1. apples
    2. oranges
    3. bananas

    and <ul><li>hamburgers</li><li>crossainwiches</li><li>mcgriddles</li></ul> displays as

    • hamburgers
    • crossainwiches
    • mcgriddles
  7. The <blockquote> tag sets off a blockquote. For example, <blockquote>”I saw your girl last night,” Ratz said, passing Case his second Kirin. <br /> “I don’t have one,” he said, and drank. <br /> “Miss Linda Lee.”</blockquote> displays as:

    “I saw your girl last night,” Ratz said, passing Case his second Kirin.
    “I don’t have one,” he said, and drank.
    “Miss Linda Lee.”

  8. To create a horizontal line that spans the width of your post, use <hr /> (for “horizontal rule”). It will display like this:

  9. For the most part, the display of your content will be controlled by the CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) files for the entire site. In paragraph <p> and span <sp> tags, though, a “style” attribute can include localized CSS to alter the look of a specific paragraph or span of text. For example, <span style=”color: orange; font-size:smaller;”> will result in a span that looks like this.
  10. Headings, from <h1> (the biggest) to <h6> (the smallest) are marked with heading tags. So, <h1>This is a heading</h1> will look like this:

    This is a heading

    and <h6>This is a smaller heading</h6> will look like this:

    This is a smaller heading

Peter Pan group post

Digital Version (Gutenberg Project):

I chose a digital version of the text, Peter Pan.  I found it on the Gutenberg website.  This website is a collaborative project that allows people access to numerous works of literature through digital means.  They have digitalized thousands of works that are in the public domain.  We actually used the site to help us pick which work we wanted to do our project on.  When I first accessed the work, I was given different options of how I wanted to view the text.

Screen Shot 2014-02-23 at 4.54.47 PM

This was interesting because it allows for very different types of reading.  They have HTML versions as well as other versions such as PDF and Kindle files.  Even though these electronic versions are very similar, they do produce different reading experiences.  The version that I chose was the HTML version of the text.  This meant that I had to read the text through my laptop and I was not in fact owning a copy of the story.  On the other hand the PDF and Kindle files could be downloaded to Dropbox, Google drive, the cloud, and ones own computer.  By picking these options it allows for a reader have direct access anywhere and does not require a computer or internet access like the HTML version.

After clicking on the HTM version I was greeted with this screen

Screen Shot 2014-02-23 at 5.02.24 PM

The link gives a brief explanation of what the Project Gutenberg is and explains why people are given access.  Then the reader is given a list of chapters that are blue hyperlinks.

Screen Shot 2014-02-23 at 5.04.10 PM

This is important because it allows for the reader to jump around the page and keep their spot in the text after leaving the page.  If you continue to scroll down the reader is taken into the story.  The hyperlinks jump to a spot on the page but one does not need to use them to navigate the different chapters of the story.  One can simply continue scrolling.

I have found this the most accessible of the different types of media, because I do not need to own a physical copy of the text nor do I need to have a special device to view the text.  The only complaint I have with the text is the spacing of the actual text.

Screen Shot 2014-02-23 at 5.23.46 PM

The text could have been more spaced out allowing for easier reading but all and all it was a well made and easily accessible website.

Disney Animated Film Version:

Another adaptation of the text can be seen in the animated film version of the story.  The version I looked at was the animated Disney film from 1953.  I was surprised at first that it was made so long ago as I fondly remember viewing it as a child in the late 90’s.  The film follows the same text as the story for the most part.  It has the same characters and plot points.


Clyde Geronimi, Wilfred Jackson, and Hamilton Luske directed the film.  It was produced by the ever talented Walt Disney.  It was a major success and is still loved today.

This film is what inspired me to want to read the book.  The way the story is presented is perfect for both children and adults.  That is part of the draw for a animated classic such as this.

The movie allowed millions of people access to a story they might have otherwise not had any contact with.   The ability to take reading out of story telling and add orality and visual aspects is key in creating an easily accessible story.  This is what sets this version of the work apart from others.

Graphic Novel Version:

This version of Peter Pan is in an online comic book form. It obviously omits much of the original text and instead provides pictures that help to tell the story. A majority of the original dialogue, however, is kept and the comic follows the standard plotline very closely. The audience that this version is geared towards would be a younger demographic, especially when considering that it is accessed online. Comics are the most popular with teens and tweens. Reading this version of the text would be a vastly different experience than reading the original book because of the illustrations. Because books rely heavily on imagination of the reader, a closely illustrated version would ensure that readers have a more standardized experience of the story. In the transition from print to online comic, a lot of the specific descriptions are included, which I found surprising because it gives the comic the feel of a book in reading but a comic in physicality and presentation. It is an interesting combination of text, dialogue, and animation. It is similar to a movie because you are watching a picture instead of imagining one in your head and holds on to the descriptions that can’t be shown, much like a narrator that voices over in certain movies.

Screen Shot 2014-02-23 at 5.09.58 PM

Print Version (the play):

I chose the original play on which the novel is based. In terms of content, this version has two titles, or rather a main title and a subtitle: “Peter Pan; or The Boy Who Would Not Grow Up”.

peter pan title page

This difference in title suggests that since the play preempted the novel, the readership of the novel would have been familiar with the play. Also, J.M. Barrie might have desired to distinguish between the two works by leaving the second title off of the novel. Interestingly, the way Barrie describes the setting in this version before each scene starts reads more like the exposition of a novel. Instead of just giving information about how the stage is set, it provides backstory as to why this particular setting has been chosen, as is the case of the Nursery in Act I.

the nursery

The stage directions also were written with in a narrative style: “So we may conclude that WENDY has told them to wait outside until she explains the situation to her mother…” (Barrie 155). To me, it seems that Barrie assumes that his audience would be reading the play as much as watching it, and I think it is meant to be read as well as performed because of this combination of the elements of a novel and a play. There is, however, less narrative description of action in the play, and it lacks any sort of illustration. It leaves lots of gaps that must be filled which makes reading this version slightly more of an effort, and thus might not be intended for a younger audience to read on their own; rather, the play version seems to necessitate being seen by younger audiences and read by older audiences. This lack of description allows for more ways in which the action can be imagined (in the reader’s mind) and interpreted (on stage). It definitely differs from the graphic novel in this way, as well as from versions that include illustrations of particular moments (see the Nook version below). Lastly, the text of the play also lacks any editorial notes or introductions; however, it does include the dedication written by Barrie.

Digital Nook Version:

peter pan nook version

The digital version of the Barnes & Noble Classics edition of Peter Pan is accessible not only just on the nook but on other devices like the computer or a smartphone (with the nook app) as long as one has a B&N account. It advertises itself as being able to be read “instantly”. this version also includes an introduction and notes by Amy Billone. The notes are separated into two sections: notes on historical information and those defining certain terms.

14-02-23-4 14-02-23-6

One can navigate to these notes by clicking on the linked numbers or letters in the text, which send the readers to the back of the book. In order to get back to the text itself, there is a “Back” button. This is a convenient way to navigate notes, which are less easily accessible during a reading session of a print version.

The Nook version also includes suggested study questions and illustrations by F.D. Bedford of particular scenes.

14-02-23-5 14-02-23-3

These illustrations are not extensively provided; only the most important plot points seem to be illustrated. This says something about the intended readership. It is neither exclusively for children (though it is a children’s book) nor adults. It is marketed for a mixed audience; while the illustrations cater to the interests of younger individuals, the informative notes, and even some suggested study questions, gear the novel toward an older audience who may intend to study the work academically.

Reading the Nook version allows one to search for specific words or phrases easily using the search tool, to make notes and highlight passages, and to bookmark pages, among many other features.


Additionally, unlike print versions, the individual reader can customize how the pages look; this personalization of the experience of reading (increasing screen brightness, making the font bigger or smaller, etc.) makes the text easier to read at the individual level. These features provide easy navigation, making reading more efficient than on other e-text versions like the Gutenberg Project’s, and they individualize the reading experience.


I also listened to part of an audio-recorded version of Peter Pan – it is read form the original text, so this version does not stray from the storyline. Audiobook seem to be most popular with the older generation because of the ease of use. It is unlikely that a young (under 30) person would sit down to listen to an audiobook or even listen to one in the car. I think that the way that an audiobook is consumed is very different than if you read the book yourself – reading requires more concentration. Your attention is much more likely to wander when listening to an audiobook and few people listen as a singular activity – it is often more of a background noise to the other activities they are doing. This dilutes the experience of the story. Details are more likely to be lost and the listener (at least in my experience) doesn’t form the same kinds of attachments to characters.

Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 12.38.47 AM

Huckleberry Finn Group Blog Post: Print & Digital Versions

Print Version #1: Great Illustrated Classics (2008)

Despite being 240 pages, this edition of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is abridged. The large print and the full-page illustrations make it seem a more child-friendly version of the text.  While it is important for children and teenagers to be able to access classic literature, much of the gravity of this text is lost in this edition. For instance, the images of Huck and Jim’s smiling faces on the front cover instantly set a cheerful and comedic tone for this text, not alluding in any way to the novel’s struggle with issues of slavery and a gray morality.  Furthermore, the old textbook-like illustrations coupled with the brief descriptions (ex. “Lessons make Huck tired”) somewhat oversimplify the novel.


Digital Version #1: CC Prose and Librivox (2011)

On the other hand, CC Prose and Librivox’s audiobook version on Youtube ( enhances the text.  It includes synchronized text and an interactive transcript that allows the reader to skip around to different parts of the book.  The Librivox audio read by Mark F. Smith is also quite pleasant to hear. Aesthetically, this version is simple: it is laid out like a scroll with a faint image in the background; the text is large and easy to follow as the speaker reads.  Like the Great Illustrated Classics edition, this version is also probably marketed toward young students, but unlike the 2008 novel, it is not abridged or depicted in any certain way.


Print Version #2: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc. (1981)

The Annotated Huckleberry Finn is reproduced from the first edition of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which was issued by Chatto & Windus from London in 1884.  The Introduction, Notes, and Bibliography were written and compiled by Michael Patrick Hearn.  The introduction provides extensive history on the writing of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.  It explains how the work came to be written as an autobiography of Huck, how Kemble became the illustrator, and the reactions the book received – to name a few examples.  Throughout the book, there are many illustrations and photos included.  These photos can range from Kemble’s drawings for the original text to an image of a location about which Twain writes.  These photos can also accompany an annotation.  The annotations would be helpful for younger readers as they explain the scenes of the book in a deeper context.  They often clarify slang that a character uses or make sense of references that would be unfamiliar to a modern reader.  The book even provides an index for words and phrases frequently mentioned.  This version is incredibly helpful to readers who want to understand The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in a deeper context.


Digital Version #2: Gutenberg (2004)

On, readers have multiple options in choosing how to view the text of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.  Project Gutenberg is a producer of free eBooks and accepts donations in order to add more books to grow their collection.  The reader can chose to receive the text of Huckleberry Finn in HTML form, or chose to download it to Dropbox, Google Drive, Kindle, or OneDrive.  Texts with and without pictures are also offered.  Readers who do not want a hard copy of the text will find the various formats that Gutenberg offers to be very valuable.  The lack of annotations in this edition, however, may not make it as child-friendly as the Clarkson & Potter edition, perhaps leading it to not be used as much in grade school English classes that wish to tackle the classic.


Print Version #3: Tom Doherty Associates, Inc. (1985)

The title page of this version of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn includes a short passage from the part of the story during which Tom Sawyer creates a gang with the other boys. Next, a few pages are devoted to a summary of Mark Twain’s life and career, written by Keith Nelson. Before the notice and explanatory (included in the UVa eText), there is one more addition to this print version: a preface.

This eight-page passage includes themes, analysis of Huck and Jim, and a view on the significance of the book’s placement in Mark Twain’s career. Both this and an afterward, also focused on character development, are by Keith Nelson.

Perhaps because of the date of printing and perhaps because of the book having been used before, the pages have a dry, soft feel and are of a slightly faded hue, unlike the white, crisp papers of modern books.  This could aid readers in getting in touch with the time-period of the book.


Digital Version #3: UVa Library (1993-1995)

The UVa Library’s eText of Huckleberry Finn is derived from the 1912 Harper & Brothers edition of the book. The text is available in a single webpage layout, or a chapter-by-chapter format, as accessed by the Table of Contents link.  Unlike in the Tom Doherty Associates version, each chapter has several words or phrases hyperlinked; upon clicking the links, readers can view pictures, needing only to press the “Back” button to return to the text.  So, in this format, viewing pictures is entirely optional, thus suiting both children and a more mature audience.  The Notice and Explanatory from the original text are also included, but the UVa Library’s version lacks an explanation of cultural relevance, which is found in the preface of the Tom Doherty Associates edition.

Particularly interesting are the chapters’ headers.  UVa’s eText does not include the chapter titles that are present in print editions; chapters are denoted with a “Chapter” followed by a roman numeral.  However, the decorations of some of these headers lend insight into the respective chapters’ contents.  For example, Chapter VI (called “Pap Struggles with the Death Angel” in the print edition), has what looks like blood dripping down from each character.  This seems pertinent, as Huck is beaten by his father in the chapter.  Other headers have elements of nature, appropriate when considering Huck and Jim’s outdoors adventure.


Print Version #4: Prospectus (1st Edition – 1884)

This prospectus, donated by C.W. Barrett to UVa’s Special Collections advertises the First Edition of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.  Unlike other print and digital forms of the text, this version is very fragile, needing to always be kept in a plastic sleeve.  This edition includes a humorous advertisement: “See the book. It speaks for itself.”  This perhaps shines light on the fact that the first Huckleberry Finn novels were sold by subscription.


Digital Version #4: Disney (1993)

This adoption of The Adventures of Huck Finn is the most recent of movie adaptations.  Huck Finn, played by a young Elijah Wood, dominates the film as he does in the novel.  However, Tom Sawyer is not represented in the film, an interesting decision by director Stephen Sommers. The novel itself is derived from Tom Sawyer (1876), and thus the modernity of the movie suggests a severance between them.  Smaller details in the movie have been altered from all versions of the text.  For example, instead of befriending Buck Grangerford, as is written in the text, Huck befriends a “Billy” Grangerford, to relate more to the prevalence of 20th century viewers.  As seen in different novel editions, the n-word is, perhaps unsurprisingly, not used in the movie.  This adaptation purposefully omitted offensive language to remain true to an era of racial sensitivity, signaling a “corrected” Huckleberry Finn.  The choice also seems apt when considering Disney’s youthful audience.


Print Version #5: Charles L. Webster (1891)

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer’s Comrade) contains newspaper clippings and postcards related to Mark Twain and the novel.  From the pictures below, it can be seen that the owner of this book was a true follower of the novel and its author.  The illustrations were replicas of the first edition.  It is extremely obvious that Herbert Reibach, the man who donated this book to the University, loved this book and intended for it to be studied as a historical document.

Unlike more recent versions (print or digital), this one had to be examined on a bookstand and could not be taken out of the library.  The UVa Special Collections, like other institutions, does sometimes digitize books; however, these often come at a price, for a lot of books are destroyed during scanning when their binding has to be removed.


Digital Version #5: American Playhouse (1985)

This adaptation, perhaps one of the darkest versions of Huckleberry Finn, includes a lynching scene only alluded to in Twain’s narrative.  The film seems to focus on capturing the dark and dangerous antebellum atmosphere.  Having made an agreement with the National Endowment for the Humanities to maintain fidelity with Twain’s text, American Playhouse decided to retain racist epithets.  The director, Peter Hunt, attempted to go beyond the confines of the pages in order to unveil the truth of the times, declaring that fidelity and authenticity are synonymous, and that the gauges we use to determine authenticity extend beyond the text itself.

Being a movie, this version of Huckleberry Finn has a much a greater ease of access than the Charles L. Webster edition.


Blog Post #3: H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds

The venerable group that’s taking on H.G. Wells’ science-fiction masterpiece War of the Worlds is none other than myself (jamescassar), Eric (ericweitzner), Ally (allyouellette), and Yura (yurakim). Our project will be available over at (eventually).

Check out our collection of texts, both visual and digital, after the jump!
Continue reading Blog Post #3: H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds

Blog Post #3: Group 2 – Frankenstein

Our group chose Frankenstein, the classic Gothic novel written by Mary Shelley, as the book for our final project. Below are the five print versions and electronic versions we found about the book.

Print Version 1: Signet Classics, ISBN: 978-0-451-52771-4

This print version of Frankenstein was published in 2000. It is a quite simple version with no illustrations but just the text. Even the cover page has no hint at the monster, which is different from some other versions. Compared with an electronic version, this one might be slightly confusing during the transition between the letters and the journal entries at the beginning of the story. The ending, consisting of another series of journal entries, looks a little bit intense too, where all of them are squeezed together on several pages. The layout might be improved by separating the letters and journal entries or change the fonts or sizes.


Print Version 2: Chicago Press, ISBN:978-1566-6355-30

This version is a play for performance, an adaptation of the original Frankenstein story by Dorothy Louise to give a contemporary feel for the story. The play is more so a revival so that the characters could be emulated by contemporary persons. It brings them to life, and the subtext of the play’s characters gives a reader a more vivid and personal look into the conscience and convictions of Mary Shelley’s characters. This script version cleverly dramatizes Victor’s action and reactions to the events of the plot (the creator of the monster), and allows for his judgments to be evaluated by the reader.

Frankenstein play series

Print Version 3: University of California Press, ISBN: CX-000-821-273 

This 1984 edition of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus caught my eye because it is an extremely large and heavy volume, the hardcover measuring about 12” x 10”.  Barry Moser illustrates throughout the edition.  These pictures appear in every chapter or letter in the text.  Most of them are dark, creepy images of what Moser imagines the monster to look like.  Other pictures illustrate the setting and some of the characters. Most of the illustrations are in black and white, but there are a few in color. There is a table of contents for these illustrations at the beginning of the book.  Because the volume has such large pages, the font is very large.  Also, there are no paragraph breaks throughout the entire text.  Instead, a symbol resembling a cross is inserted where there should be a paragraph break.  This formatting might be confusing to the average reader.  The titles on the cover pages as well as the chapter headings are written in a spooky, Gothic font. The title on the cover as well as the edges of the pages are blood red, contrasting with the cover’s black background.

print ver 3

(Illustration of the monster’s face by Barry Moser)

print ver 32

(Another creepy monster face by Barry Moser)

Print Version 4: Making Humans: Shelley and Wells, Judith Wilt, ISBN: 0-618-08489-4

The book compares Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and H.G. Wells’ The Island of Doctor Moreau, including full texts of both, critical essays, historical context, and an introduction to presents the two texts together. The similarities between the two texts are not the main focus, but rather, the reasons behind the similarities. Wilt attempts to understand the similarities between the two by putting them into context and connecting them to modern society. For example, she discusses the fascination with the manipulation of the human body within these two novels, as well as themes of loneliness and human desires. It is truly an interesting analysis and could possibly be a model for our own literature projects as we compare and contextualize Frankenstein.

print ver 4

Print version 5: Norton Critical Edition, ISBN: 0-393-96458-2

This book has a lot of resources packed into it. The preface gives lots of interesting insights into Mary Shelley’s life, as well as the circumstances under which Frankenstein was originally written. Mary Shelley, her husband Percy Shelley, and three other friends including Lord Byron, agreed to participate in a ghost story contest between the three of them, but Mary was the only one to follow through and produce a significant work of literature. But due to the fact that she was a woman, no one initially believed that it was authored by her. Her husband did make contributions by editing the original story, but people largely overestimated the amount that he contributed. These details could be interesting to explore in our project, as perhaps we could find some sort of correlation between how Mary Shelley began to be recognized for her work and how the image of Frankenstein evolved. This edition does not have any pictures except for a map of Geneva towards the beginning, which could be helpful. It has extensive footnotes and resources in the back of the book, which could also be interesting to explore.

print ver 5

Electronic version 1: Electronic text

This electronic text version has a clear layout, which helps readers to understand the story easier and faster. It marks the speaker of each chapter by the chapter title. Since both Frankenstein and the monster spoke in a first-person perspective during the story, mentioning the speaker at the beginning of each chapter enables readers to follow the storyline more smoothly. Meanwhile, this electronic version separates the letters and journal entries in the story from the first-person narration and titles each of them as well. Such layout not only makes the story feel more real, which Mary Shelley was trying to do by adding all these “documents”, but also improves the readability. Besides, this electronic version also attains all the page numbers from the print version.

Frankenstein website

Electronic version 2: Audio book

This eight-hour recording can be easily experienced as a complete bore for its monotonous quality if a reader has no prior knowledge of the story. It was a word for word recitation of the book that serves to make life easier for anyone interested in Frankenstein, but it will not be a recommended resource for academic purposes. The recording gives a reader that intimacy with the story’s characters as a printed version would. Furthermore, it is hard to bookmark, so if a reader wanted a break they must guess where they last ended; nevertheless,  the comments section indicates that many readers were successful with electronic bookmarking.

e ver 2

Electronic version 3: Kindle Book Edition

This edition of Frankenstein is typical of any Kindle book.  It consists of plain text all the way through the novel, and all of the Kindle’s interactive functions are permitted.  The reader can turn the pages by swiping right to left or left to right.  There are tools that allow you to highlight, add notes, search for keywords, and jump to specific places in the novel using the Location numbers. The Kindle also has a dictionary function that, if you hover over a word, will give you its definition. There are tools that allow you to change the font size, and there’s even a tool that lets you post quotes or your reading progress on social media sites.  While there aren’t aesthetically pleasing fonts or illustrations, this version is great for anyone who wants an interactive digital reading experience. And the best part: It’s free!

e ver 3

Electronic Version 4: Interactive App

This version of Frankenstein is an interactive, visual version that is powered through an app called “inkel”, which costs $4.99 to purchase. It works in similar ways as some other interactive literature we have explored in class. At the end of the page, the reader chooses the next line of the next page, ultimately determining the path of the story.  The text includes text from Mary Shelley’s original published book. In this way, the reader has control of weather or not certain events even occur during the storyline -the reader completely controls the plot. While this is hard to compare to the original published text, it continues to receive excellent reviews as a digital literary tool. One aspect of the program that we do find impressive is the visual experience when reading the novel. While these images were not all part of the original text, they allow the reader to visualize the “monster” and science journal entries. The style of the images, as well as how they are presented to the reader, bring the story into a smooth and modern light -ultimately bringing a new life to “the modern prometheus.”

e ver 4

Electronic Version 5: Archive containing original manuscript

This archive has original manuscripts of Shelley’s novel. The website is easy to navigate, and it is interesting to see the edits made by her husband on the pages. There are options you can select to either show all annotations, only those by Mary, or only those by Percy. The manuscripts each have a clearly typed up version beside them, so the sometimes illegible handwriting is not an issue. There is also always a box underneath that says how to cite the manuscript. It would be really interesting if we could somehow work with this website, although we are not particularly sure how to use it yet. Perhaps if we were interested in a particular passage, it would be interesting to turn to this archive to see what the original version was, and what edits were made to it.

e ver 5

Alice in Wonderland

Allyson- Alice’s adventures in Wonderland : a pop-up book (Print) is intended to be read as a storybook for young children. It contains colorful, interactive images of the work that creates a connectedness to the story lost in a digital work. Due to the intricacy of the pop-up images, the book is very short, excluding some chapters and only summarizing the rest. Because the book is more about entertaining and reading to children, most of the story and its details are lost. Since there is the interactivity with pulling tabs on the images and the pop-ups, there is a personalness, and entertainment that would not be the same in a digital version.

Alice’s adventures in Wonderland (Print) is a second edition print version of the novel. It includes all the original illustrations from the original illustrator John Tenniel. If the text were to be produced in a digital format, these illustrations are probably the most important to preserve because they are the closest to Carroll’s vision of the story. In a digital format though, the book would lose some of its authenticity. Because it was published in 1866, it is closest to the way that Alice Liddell–the girl Carroll wrote the book for–read the book in 1865. The gold-edged pages, the red binding, and the simple images on the front and back covers are real to what Alice Liddell would have read, which adds some perspective to the reading of this print version as opposed to how it would be digitized.



Erin- The Annotated Alice (Print)

The Annotated Alice has undergone a series of transformations. Originally published in 1960, the publisher, Potter, refused to allow Martin Gardner to update the book with new notes. These he used in a sequel, More Annotated Alice, published in 1990 by Random House. In 1998 an editor at Norton approached Gardner to combine the two works into a “Definitive Edition.” Published in 2000, this is the most recent edition.

           The beginning of the work includes a Preface to the Definitive Edition as well as both introductions from The Annotated Alice and More Annotated Alice. These introductions provide an historical context for the Alice books, including biographical and cultural backgrounds.

           Then follow the complete texts of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There, including the original John Tenniel illustrations. Throughout the margins are annotations made by Martin Gardner. These include information and observations either culled from others’ published research or submitted by readers of the original The Annotated Alice and More Annotated Alice. Gardner believes the texts cannot be fully appreciated without some knowledge of Oxford in the early 1860s, as there are many contemporary allusions with which modern readers are unfamiliar.

           After the annotated texts are various related materials. First is The Wasp and the Wig, preceded by a Preface and Introduction which explain the episode’s absence from Through the Looking-Glass and a facsimile of Tenniel’s letter to Carroll urging the writer to remove it. From this follow a Note About Lewis Carroll Societies, an extensive section of Selected References, and a list of Alice on the Screen.


Alicewinks (Electronic)

The version of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland commonly referred to as “Alicewinks” is the 150th Anniversary Animated Edition for Tablet Computers. Available for both iOS and Android through the App Store and Google Play, the Android download was updated February 25, 2013 to version 1.2 and is 1.8G. Developed by David Neal, William McQueen, and Brittney Owens, the eBook integrates text, video, and animations in a portrait orientation, including the illustrations of 12 post-Tenniel illustrators.


David-Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland Gutenberg Ebook (Electronic)

This digital version of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland is the one I have been using to read Carroll’s work, and it is “a hypertext formatted version of the Project Gutenberg edition.” The etext was put together by Robert Stockton at Carnegie Mellon, and is very easy to use, complete with a table of contents with links to the corresponding sections. This version features illustrations from John Tenniel, so that gives it some valuable similarities with the experience of reading a print edition, but the shortcomings of the digital version are numerous. First of all, a digital version is necessarily represented on a screen, which causes slight eye fatigue over long periods and is generally less aesthetically pleasing than a real page (Stockton’s page features a particularly basic/ugly site design, with literally nothing but the text, occasional pictures, and links on a white page). Similarly, the entire experience of sitting and looking at a laptop, which is full of various applications and distractions, will never compare to the experience of dedicating time to turning the pages of a novel and immersing oneself very exclusively in the world of a story in that way.

Alice in Wonderland 1951 Film (Electronic?)

The 1951 Alice in Wonderland film is an extremely popular way to experience Carroll’s story. This film of course loses some of the elements of the original plot, and also features parts of both Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, so it is not the truest interpretation of our main text. It is, nonetheless, very interesting to see how Carroll’s story was interpreted at the time, and why it was so popular. The other interesting thing about the film is that it is now so commonly watched in childhood that the film starts to determine how readers see Carroll’s world when they read his original text, so, as is true for a lot of movies, it has begun to reshape the text it originally came from. The experience of watching the film is obviously very different from reading a novel, as it requires far less time commitment, no actual reading, and leaves nothing to the imagination of the viewer.

Marta- Alice’s adventures in Wonderland: a critical handbook, 1969 (Print)

What was intriguing about this critical handbook is that it also includes Alice’s Adventures Underground, which was the manuscript that would eventually be published as Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. I think what makes this version particularly interesting besides the fact that the storyline is a bit different, is that it is handwritten. It does not make the text any harder to read because it is written with beautiful and clear penmanship. What it mostly adds is more life to the text, just like the illustrations do. It reflects perfectly the personality of the text. This characteristic is also what I think would be most important to preserve when offered in a digital version. It needs to photocopied because if it is just typed up with a font that imitates the handwriting, I think there would still be a lot lost. All the letters would be too standardized and identical to one another.

Marta- Salvador Dali’s illustrations of “Alice in Wonderland” (Electronic?)

Salvador Dali’s surrealist style is particularly interesting because it amplifies the psychedelic nature of the narrative. Unlike most versions of Alice in Wonderland, which have illustrations that are realist and cater best to children, Dali presents the dark nature with one image for each chapter. Although it would have been more interesting if he was able to illustrate more images throughout the book, I think with these cover pages, Dali is able to transform the reading experience through the use of imagery better than any other artist.

Ronnie – Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1972 Film Musical) electronic – The 1972 musical adaptation of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland brings Alice and the other characters to life, using music to communicate much of Lewis Carroll’s classic.  The edition retains much of the flavor of the novel, taking much of its wording directly from the book.  Additionally, the characters costumes were designed to closely follow the original John Tennial drawings from the first edition of the book.  Unlike many of the other film portrayals of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, the 1972 film adds music to the visual and auditory elements.  The songs give this adaptation a whimsical feel in the spirit of Carroll’s novel.

Natalia- Alice in Wonderland (2010 Film) Electronic – This is a modern adaptation by Tim Burton and Disney. This film uses computer animation. This film has scenes from the original Alice book and Through the Looking-Glass. In this film Alice is a 19 year old adult instead of a girl. The film focuses on her trying to slay the Jabberwocky. The aesthetics of this film are typical of a Tim Burton movie.

Natalia- Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Other Stories (Barnes and Noble Collectible Editions) Print – This is a modern 2010 edition of Alice. It also includes other stories such as “Through the Looking-Glass”, “Sylvie and Bruno”, “Sylvie and Bruno Concluded”, and “The Hunting of the Snark”. The volume has everything that Lewis Carroll ever published in it. It’s a leatherbound volume. It has a different cover on it than the original Alice. By having all of Lewis Carroll’s writings in one volume, one can more easily see the similarities and differences between each story.

Prompt for Blog Post 3

In class on Monday, we discussed your third blog post, which will involve the collaboration of all the members of your group. For this post, I’ve asked your groups to gather at least 5 print versions and 5 electronic/digital versions of your central text and to compare them. You’ll have more to say if you manage to find a diversity of versions—that is, lots of texts have Kindle editions and Nook editions and .mobi and .epub editions, and it’s interesting that there are all those different editions, but you’ll probably have more to say if you compare a Kindle edition to a print edition than if you compare it to a Nook edition.

For each of your versions, you should include some kind of image that represents it. Compare the different versions, paying special attention not just to differences in content but also to differences in the material of the (physical or digital) objects and in the experience a reader undergoes as she encounters the objects.

As your group writes briefly about each version, ask yourselves, for example:
• What makes this version of the text materially different from the others?
• Do the differences between various versions of the text say something about how the text is being marketed, or about its presumptive readership?
• What kinds of differences does it make if I read a text in (say) its Kindle version, or in an illustrated version, or in a version in a web browser, etc.?
• What new types of information/archives of research material does this particular version of the text offer us or hide from us?
• If I wanted to produce a digital surrogate for this version of a print text, which qualities of it (beyond “the text” itself) would it be important to preserve? Or, for the digital versions, what was preserved/abandoned in the transition from print to digital?

The idea here is both to help you think through how the print-to-digital transition can help us think about qualities of print objects we might not have noticed before and to consider the complexities of the world of texts from which your group’s object of study comes. There is no specific length requirement for this collaborative post, but it should be long enough to show that your group has thought with some seriousness about how these different versions offer different experiences, and how the aggregate of them complicates and expands your consideration of these texts.

You should write the post together, but only one member of the group need post it to the blog.

Google Maps

Google Maps, created in 2005, has allowed us an actual sense of where things are exactly in the world from thousands of miles away. It’s become so ubiquitous that it’s hard to imagine a life without it. I’m sure you’ve needed to go somewhere in the city and wondered about parking, so you’ve used the Street View capability to see where parking spots are in the area. Did you ever need to find your way around a new area for a morning jog? You can select the “walking” option rather than the “car” option. If you wanted to take a certain highway or side road, different from the one suggested to you, you can draw in a new line over the path you would like to take and adjust your route. Already, the significant advantages we have with access to Google Maps at a desktop and especially on our mobile devices are astounding.

Of course, the possibilities are endless with an application like this. For example, you can check out Google Moon and Google Mars to zoom in on these extra-terrestrial surfaces. There is such great access to seeing whatever building in the world we desire, that there was even concern over potentially threatening usage of Google Maps. Certain high security places like the White House are actually burred out. At the same time, though, North Korea is completely open and visible with Google Maps. (

Google Maps has even been used to create art. The Grammy-winning, Arcade Fire, won great recognition for their first interactive music video with their song, “We Used to Wait.” To begin this you first enter the address of your childhood home. I don’t want to give it away, but you are basically led to the streets of your childhood with the help of Google Maps. Check it out – it’s pretty spectacular.

Arcade Fire Interactive

Blog Post #2: HathiTrust Digital Library

HathiTrust Digital Library is a digital humanities tool that features digitized texts and collections of some of these texts put together by theme by academics and members of institutions that are partners with HathiTrust. Much like Google Books, from which HathiTrust has accumulated much of its book collection, HathiTrust acts as a virtual library through which one can search for and read many full-length books and documents, and read parts of/search for word occurrences in copyrighted texts. HathiTrust claims to have accumulated its texts from 80 partnerships, including Google and a large number of university libraries. The HathiTrust archive of books is hence quite large, and about as user-friendly as the Google Books layout.

The most interesting, unique, and useful feature of the HathiTrust Digital Library is its available collections of texts that center around a certain theme. For instance, one collection titled “Records of the American Colonies” includes 852 “published documents–legislation, court proceedings, records, correspondence, etc–from the 13 original colonies.” The collection was, as most are, put together or posted by a single person, in this case professor Nicholas Okrent at the University of Pennsylvania. Some of these collections are as broad as a collection of all books published by the University of Michigan Press, while others are as narrow as a collection of texts written by G.A. Henty.

The collections are a good example of the possibilities of our class’s final projects. For example, websites/blogs about a given book could include collections of important literary criticism concerning the book, as well as interesting publications of this book (HathiTrust features a publication of Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland in Gregg Shorthand). HathiTrust even allows one to make an account and add such collections to the site, although it claims that one must “log in with your partner institution account.” As an overall resource, HathiTrust adds to the normal digital library’s inclusion of a large number of texts with its personal collections of documents, and thus offers something that, for instance, Google Books does not.