Tag Archives: pecha kucha

Southwest and Big Data

Looking back on the project, I think I could have spent a little more time evolving my topic. I knew that I wanted to do my presentation on something that related to my field of study, Aerospace Engineering. And, I knew that there was a lot of data in the airline industry, so I thought I could merge the two. After researching how the two related, I came upon how Southwest uses big data and decided to use this as my idea. I quickly found all the information I could on the topic, which wasn’t enough, but I was too far into the project to change the topic. I stuck by what I had already came up with and decided to add a little more on how the airplane itself gathers data. So, I looked up what sensors an airplane might use and came up with this sensor:


This water vapor sensor shows what an airplane’s data can do for itself and other fields, such as weather forecasting. The picture shows what a sensor might look like and all the parts involved with it. Since it would be hard to verbally tell what the sensor looks like and how it works, I added this picture to give the audience the image that my words could not create. My argument for this whole project was meant to be what data Southwest collects and how it creates a safer, more efficient, and more customer friendly airline. There was not as much information behind this as I thought there would have been. I thought the part about them teaming up with NASA was really interesting though. Southwest did not release too much information on how they maintain such customer satisfaction other than that they partnered with Aspect to analyze speech and social media to see what their customers want. All this data did work though because in the end, they do have the least amount of complaints.


It is amazing how they have such a low number of complaints and such a high number of customers. This visual shows that even airlines that have less customers have much more complaints. Other than Delta, all other big airlines, such as Virgin, US Airways, American Airlines, and United, have many more complaints. Adding this image to the Pecha Kucha gave the audience more of an idea of what the other popular airlines’ customer satisfaction was like.

If I were to do this project again, I would have given myself more time and come to office hours to talk about how I could formulate my argument/topic better. If I had done that, my presentation would have been much better.


Information Technology In Automobiles

Pecha Kucha Reflection

I chose this topic: “Information Technology in Automobiles,” specifically because I am personally interested in the car industry, and I thought that I could find a lot of relevant pictures about this topic. I didn’t want to choose a topic that would be hard to accumulate images, but I also wanted to present something that I’m interested in.  I developed my argument around how big data is changing the way people drive and interact with their vehicles. I think that big data is beginning to create a whole new type of vehicle on the road, which will enhance the driving experience and keep people safer.

Originally, I wasn’t sure on how to begin the process for creating this presentation, because of the tricky timing between narration and slides. I decided to focus on a few main points, and find pictures for those points before I began writing a script. While reflecting, I think this was the best decision, because my images were incorporated well into my presentation, and it also helped me stay on topic with my script. In order to find the images, I tried to assemble pictures that showed examples, such as the driver fatigue system shown below. If that was not possible, I tried to enhance my argument with strong graphs or figures. Basically, for every slide, I not only wanted to incorporate the images in my talk, I wanted to enhance the argument I was making by incorporating these images.

Driver fatigue




One thing I did to help with the 20 second timing, was to set up my script in separate paragraphs so that I know where i need to be when following the pages. This helped me make sure i finish at the right time, and I also wanted to make sure I didn’t spend over 20 seconds on a slide, therefore I can express every image instead of disregarding some. When rehearsing my initial script, I found things to be very fast paced and quick. Therefore, I shortened a lot of lines and paragraphs, so that I would have breathing room for the presentation. This took a lot of patience and timings, which was a lot harder than I had anticipated.



The scheming that went into making this pecha kucha really helped me with my presenting skills, because you have to keep everything precise and strong in 20 seconds or less. This was unlike anything I had ever worked on before, and I learned a lot about presenting because of it. If I had another chance to do a pecha kucha, I believe that I would try to work without a complete script. When I was presenting, I felt like I was staring down way to much and not interacting with the audience. I would set up note cards in order to highlight key terms and sentences, but I would try to communicate more with the audience in order to be more engaging.

Cancer and Society

I struggled in the beginning to create an idea to make my Pecha Kucha on. Mr. Rettberg kept telling us to find something that really interested us or was a part of our lives, but I still couldn’t think of anything that would have enough content to do a whole presentation. I kept delving into my personal life and I realized that cancer has played a pretty big role in my family, so I decided to stick with the idea. Connecting it to our class subject of “Data, Culture, and Information” was not too bad because there are several statistics, articles, and research  out there that I could use for my purpose. Now, I did not want to just lecture the class about cancer and its effects; I wanted to give them my own opinion on how it affects our culture and society.

I was hesitant at first to follow through with my conclusion, that cancer has a positive effect on society, because the last thing I wanted to do was offend anybody in the audience if they had had a rough personal struggle with cancer. So I built my argument up slowly and tried to never say anything that might have made someone angry. To give background info on cancer, I used a few diagrams to show how the cells develop. In particular, I like the picture of our social circles and how we can all be connected. It starts off with one person in the middle who, in this case has cancer or knows someone that has cancer. That news spreads to a close group of people, just one or two other people. But those people end up telling others and eventually more and more people are affected by the news of cancer. It helped me make my point that we probably all know someone who has been touched by cancer, proving that cancer really is something that we all have in common.Six Degrees of Separation


Another of my favorite pictures from my PK is the tree made up of people, all supporting each other.People Tree

I though this image did a great job of supporting my argument when it came to the definition of society. A community works together as a whole, almost as a singe unit, but that’s only if each individual works together. Notice how each person is holding up another, representing the dependence we have on other people in our lives. I made the point that Cancer brings us together and gives us a sense of compassion and drive throughout our society, and I believe this picture helped the audience make sense of what I was trying to say.

Overall, the process of creating the PK was pretty interesting. At first it sounded difficult to line up the slides with my words, but after several edits of my script and a dozen trial runs, I finally got my timing down and achieved almost a seamless transition between slides that kept my thoughts and points in order and not all over the place or rushed.

The Positive Impact of Steroids on the MLB


I found it easy to come up with a topic for my Pecha-Kucha. Since baseball is my favorite sport, I thought it would be fun and easy to just focus on the MLB. Trying to make my joy fit into the topic of this class was a little more difficult though. Eventually, I decided to make my Pecha-Kucha on how steroids had a positive effect on Major League Baseball. I made this choice because I could use data prove my point and I was able to talk about how the American culture somewhat ignored the issue.

Making a P-K was easier than just putting together a slideshow or just writing an essay. The two working together allowed me to use both to get my argument across better. I didn’t have to go into as much detail on some topics because a picture was there to help me explain it. I started my Pecha-Kucha by writing a script. Once I got the script to about 6:40, I started practicing the script and marking where I was in the script every twenty seconds. Then, I chose a picture that I thought best represented the topic I was talking about during those twenty second intervals. I feel like my web presentation was better than my in class presentation. In class, I was nervous for some reason so I ended up talking faster which threw off the timing of my slides. That led to a picture of a snail on the screen when I was talking about nothing to do with snails. I was able to better monitor my time and speak at a better pace on the web presentation. My web presentation didn’t finish in the time that I wanted it to, but overall, I believe it was slightly better.

This picture allowed me to show a couple of the points that I made. It appeared when I was talking about slugging percentagRuth did it on hotdogs & beere; I was hoping that it would indicate that these players were putting up crazy numbers with PEDs, whereas Babe Ruth was putting up the same numbers the right way. An unintended consequence of this picture was that it showed how fans didn’t support the use of steroids, yet they still showed up to games and filled the league’s pockets.

I believe the following picture is the most influential picture in my whole presentation. It shows the MLB’s all-time home run leaders, and it shows the players suspected of PED use in red. This picture assists me by showing that the most impressive numbers were put up during the steroid era. What I like most about this picture is that it allows the audience to quickly see the players suspected of PED use and how successful their careers were; that was helpful because I didn’t need to elaborate on a topic that could be summed up in 15 seconds.

All-time HR Leaders

Your Brain on Data

After Georgia Tech, I plan on attending medical school to become a doctor, preferably a neurosurgeon. I truly enjoy the brain and its features. It always astounds me to see how interconnected the vast regions of the cerebrum can be. This structure is the creation of something absolutely awe-striking and is a testament to our never-ending search for a higher power. It is not a question of who came first, the human or the brain, because humanity is in tandem with the brain. Without our neurological capabilities, civilization itself could have never occurred, and the modernism we live in today would literally never have been considered.
My presentation in class felt rushed in that I had too much to say for specific slides. I rehearsed several times, but the words did not flow as well during the actual presentation. For the recorded version, I tried to eliminate this issue by shaving a sentence or two off of problem slides.
Due to the immensity of this subject, narrowing down my topic was rather difficult, and I still chose a rather broad subject that contributed to the lengthiness of my slide information; however, engaging images that correlated directly to my argument were rather scarce and required some tinkering in order to construe the correct message.
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This image portrayed the separation of left and right hemispheres. I had to monochrome the Spock section of the image because it was originally colorful which clouded the point of true separation of function. Visualizing the split between hemispheres can be redundant, so I incorporated two pictures that require the audience to think and thereby truly grasp the concept.
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The memory card here is almost satirical because during this slide I mention how the brain has infinite long-term storage. It pokes fun at technology by implying that the brain can already do what an SD card can. Technology definitely has its advantages like following directions perfectly every time and predetermined functions that take milliseconds to complete, but the brain still wins out for me due to its origin, organic components, and ability to “produce” consciousness.

Color Psychology

The process of making this video was definitely a difficult one, considering much of the software that I was attempting to use was not cooperating with my computer; however, the process of creating the Pecha Kucha itself was somewhat entertaining. I have to admit, I was a little nervous for the presentation of this project because I have never been comfortable with public speaking. The last time I spoke in front of my class was my junior year of high school. I remember walking to the front of the classroom, standing behind the podium, and opening my mouth to find no words coming out. By this point, I was shaking so badly that my teacher had to lead me out of the room so that I could sit in the hallway for a few minutes on my own. For this reason, I decided that it would be best if I wrote a script that I could read off of or reference during my presentation. Upon starting my script, I discovered just how much information about the topic of color psychology I didn’t know. As I continued writing, my script turned into a sort of miniature research paper. I was definitely interesting to learn so much about this topic though, especially because I have been interested in it for so long, which is precisely why I chose it as my topic in the first place. My goal in this presentation was to create an argument that color psychology does exist, and that it is actually very evident in our daily lives, however, we hardly notice it.


This particular image worked perfectly with the narration in this area of the presentation because it served as an example to help me make a point that would have been very difficult to make without the visual aid. At this point in my presentation, I was trying to prove my point that different colors really do evoke different emotions from people, and I wanted my audience to be able to physically experience this phenomenon. By having the ability to put this picture on the screen, I was able to make people more aware of the changes they may have felt when the image appeared. Because yellow is a stimulating color, they should have felt slightly more alert than before.


This is another image that was in my presentation that I used to make a point that I otherwise would not have been able to make. By this point in my presentation, I am explaining that cultures reflect what people find to be most important through the use of color psychology. This is a picture of New York City. In the narration, I am pointing out that the colors seen most in this image are red, yellow, and orange, meaning that American culture values the emotions that these colors represent: action and intensity. Without this image, many people may have doubted that New York City even reflected these colors in their city to begin with.

Has Big Data Changed the Game of Soccer?

When selecting a Pecha Kucha topic I chose to talk about soccer because it is something that interests me and I also know a lot about it. But narrowing it down to a particular topic was very difficult. It took me over a week to finally decide on the right topic but after reading an article on bleacherreport.com on the advantage the German national team had over other teams during the 2014 FIFA world cup I knew what I wanted to do. I had never really thought of data as an advantage in soccer. Soccer always appeared to be a game of skill and luck but after reading the article I was surprise at the huge impact data made in the German national team tactics. So I finally decided on the topic ‘has big data changed the game of ‘soccer?’ The process of making the presentation was very difficult. I read through over 20 articles to find facts to prove the benefits data has and I also had to be sure these facts where 100% accurate. Then it was also hard finding the right images to convey my message. I couldn’t find the right image for some slides so I had to edit pictures to suit the presentation. When practicing my presentation, I found it difficult timing my word to match the images on the slide. So I had to edit my script a lot of times to allow the slides flow with the script.

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In my second slide I was talking about the origin of soccer. I mentioned that the most related ancient game to modern soccer was the game of Cuju. I tried to give a brief description of the game and the image was included to help that description. The image works to show the viewers how the game of Cuju looked when played and it helped to develop the relationship to modern day soccer. Since the slide only lasted 20 seconds, I could not give a clear description of the game within the time frame but the image easily showed the viewer exactly how Cuju looked.

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In my fourth slide I was talking about the popularity of soccer across the globe. I stated that soccer has grown to gain wide popularity in many countries around the world especially in Africa, Europe and South America. The image was used to give the viewers a more detailed look at how popular soccer has become. It would have been outrageous for me to list all the countries but the image makes it easier to understand and portray.


Sewol Ferry – Pecha Kucha

Sewol Ferry, the topic of my Pecha Kucha, was not at all a random choice. Sewol Ferry was not just a single accident in South Korea, but was an alarm that taught citizens and government how incompetent government systems of South Korea is.  Failure of Coast Guard’s rescue was just a tip of an iceberg. Sewol Ferry uncovered corruptions within the government system, and uselessness of rules and  laws that eventually put more than 300 lives of teenagers into death. Dishonesty of media and government was also shocking. Wrong information sent out by government and media deceived the family of the deceased and put citizens in extreme anger. Sewol Ferry was somewhat like revolution, revealing the dirty parts of society and making citizens realize how obsolete government system has become.


This ribbon may be the most frequently used picture in South Korea Internet. As repeatedly it was used, the meaning it contains is also massive. Its original use was to commemorate the people died. However, its overuse and misuse distorted its meaning and made it into a symbol of anti-government power. I used this ribbon in my presentation, because this symbol directly demonstrates the danger that is hidden behind the use of social networking services. Yellow ribbon is not a symbol that is used first in South Korea. It was a symbol used in all around the world to commemorate people who died unfortunately, such as people died in war. Yet, indiscreet use of this symbol on Facebook and Instagram made citizens to become sick of this symbol. How can a symbol that commemorates the dead become a symbol of anti-government?

The image of ‘Keep Calm and Disobey’ (which I cannot paste here because of technical problem) also have become children’s motto in Korea. Whole disaster of Sewol Ferry not only made citizens to distrust their government, but also made youth to distrust adults. The president and officials of government deceived the citizens. Students who genuinely followed the captain of Sewol Ferry became the first to die.  Children and students started to suspect the necessity and competence of adults. After all, if every student disobeyed to the captain, they had a higher chance to live.  I thought ‘disobey’ might be the perfect word to express feelings of citizens. They do not know what to trust, but moreover, they even lost a reason to trust anyone.

Pecha Kucha Presentation


It had always raised my curiosity why news stations where so bias to one political party as opposed to another. For the longest time I had shown little or no interest in politics in general, mainly due to the fact that I would be unable to affect it being that I was under the legal age to even vote. Since that time, now I can vote and it is important for me to know this information. So I thought what better than to search for and gain a better understanding of the political world. My new found interest in politics lead me to the idea about the bias of the news stations. This seemed like a perfect introduction into the political world since most everyone uses the news networks to bet their political information.

At the beginning of the project I was a little intimidated at the fact that I would have to speak for six minutes and forty seconds, however it turned out to be easier than I thought. In order to prepare for the project I wrote out a script so say along with the slides I was presenting as I started to time myself I realized that I needed only to say about two to three sentences per slide which is not too difficult to accomplish.


I chose my slides based on the information I was presenting. I chose key words or phrase in my speech to correspond with what my audience was hearing. Some of the pictures I had chosen used word play for example in slide ten. I stated that “segments run by opinionated hosts” and the picture I posted a picture of a running woman. In addition the sponge soaking water gave the audience a picture of water being soaked up by the sponge. This image was to go along with the words, “The media is run by the bias that permeates it.” So just like water permeates a sponge, bias permeates media.




The final slide was needed to create a summation of the entire presentation. Since the final slide was needed to represent the entire presentation, it was therefore the most important of all the slides. For this picture I choose a nice friendly picture of a group of presumably businessmen and woman all shaking hands. The businessmen are representative of the cable news networks. I chose this picture due to the fact that it resembles a friendly and trustworthy attitude.

How Netflix Suggests

The class was told to do our pecha-kucha on something that interested us. I began thinking about what I enjoy: baking, volleyball, theatre, cake decorating, hanging with my friends, sleeping, and Netflix. Originally my “idea” had been a joke. Like most college students, I joked about how I was going to do a presentation on Netflix and my preparation would be watching all 153 episodes of Gilmore Girls in a week (all in the name of research of course). However, as I joked, I thought about Netflix in relation to the concept of big data and realized the concept of Netflix might actually work. I have always had issues with the suggestions section of Netflix because although it gets the genres I like correct, the shows were never ones that I actually want to watch. This prompted me to research how the suggestions are actually made and if I was the only one with these issues. I researched my topic with a focus on the Netflix’s drive to perfect their suggestions. I actually wrote out my script before making my presentation, though I constantly thought about what slide should have what picture. The following two pictures I believe aided my presentation the best and brought a level of understand that solely me talking wouldn’t have been able to.


When I was discussing the basics of how to personalize someone’s Netflix account, having the visuals (I believe) made it easier for the audience to remember the steps. It also allowed my explanation of the process to make more sense because the steps I was describing were right in front of them. Furthermore, by being able to see the steps it takes to complete the personalization process, it seems less daunting or annoying and the viewer might actually take the time to fill out the survey.


Once I was confident that all of my slides had pictures relevant to my script, I split my script into 20-second blurbs so that I knew what content went with which slide, and whether I needed to adjust my speed to stay with the pictures. I couldn’t however prepare for the question portion except to know my facts. However, I was lucky because the questions that were asked, I had good information about. I even got to mention a statistic I left out when I had presented. The question portion was the main difference that I felt from presenting to a live audience vs creating the recording. I had some audience feedback during (a few laughs or smiles), but other than that I enjoyed reading from my script during the media recording without needing to worry about making eye contact. Overall, I liked my finished product. I learned a lot about the process of how big data relates to Netflix while suggesting titles and I also learned more about how important the utilization of big data is to the success of the company.

YouTube: Trends and Statistics Reflection



I chose this image because it is a physical and visual representation of the idea I talking about during this side. It shows the ways playbook-programming-call-to-actions-details1

YouTube users can act on videos they have seen and promote their favorite ones. With narration I can talk about how people interact with the website the picture shows the audience what kind of interaction there is. Likes and Shares are a big part of how videos spread out on the YouTube website and become extremely popular and successful.


This next image helps display inter-connectivity final slide of my presentation and I wanted to use it to give a visual representation f a network and how people connect with each other. YouTube links people with common interests together and create a global culture that the image helps show along with the narration.

I enjoyed making this presentation because of the liberty we were given when choosing topics. For most school projects teachers limit students to presenting topics and ideas that they are not interested in and this takes away from some of the presentation. However, for this project I was able to choose a topic that highly interests me and is something that I can relate to. I chose to focus on YouTube because it is a website I use every day and I am extremely fascinated with YouTube culture, specifically film making and gaming. My argument developed around the fact that I wanted to show people how this website that I use is a great medium for connectivity and sharing ideas. The images came from the script. I pictured myself having a conversation with someone on how YouTube was such a great website and chose images based on what I was saying. For me it was important for none of the images to be ambiguous and that each should relate directly with what I was saying.

While preparing for my presentation I mostly just read my talking point out loud and made sure that I had enough words to fill each 20 second period. Instead of just having one long script and hoping that the words would line themselves up with the images I chose to divide them up into small section of about equal length so that each slide had its own unique narration. I didn’t practice with an audience but while reading the presentation to myself out loud I made small changes to the script and even changed some of the pictures when I thought the meaning wouldn’t be evident from my script.


A Reflection on Emergence

I knew my topic about the first day this project was assigned.  I’ve always been a fan of philosophy and some friends and I had just a few days prior talked about consciousness as an emergent property over lunch (we are a fun bunch).  It seemed specific enough to create an argument, broad enough to have the requisite amount of information needed to talk for nearly 7 minutes.  The first problem I encountered was coming up with the argument.  I knew that one could definitely build an argument around emergence, but discovering what it was took some time.  I eventually decided on “Argue that consciousness is an emergent property,” and just take it from there.


The first picture I’d like to write about took a bit to find.  I’ve always been a strong believer in including comedy into presentations; I think it holds audience’s attention better and allows the presentation to stand out among the others, even when it’s about something as dense as a philosophical concept.  An issue I had in finding an appropriate picture for this slide was that the CNN analyst was talking about nude photo leaks and I wanted to keep the presentation PG.  Luckily, Mr. Hutchinson provided some excellent satire which served its function well, as I do remember hearing some chuckles from the rest of the class when they saw this.  Even though the text on the slide was the star of the picture, which in the ideal pecha kucha I suppose it shouldn’t be, I think it fit well into the presentation as a whole.



The second picture I will write about is from a webcomic that I read religiously, xkcd.  As soon as I had the script for the Pecha Kucha written, I knew that I wanted a scene from xkcd as the closer, as it is well known for having witty, minimalist yet thought provoking strips.  I remember one comic in particular, called “Time”, was especially interesting as the image on the website changed over a span of several weeks, telling one cohesive story all the way through (for those curious, here is a link to a website where you can see all of “time”).  So I did a quick google search for “xkcd time” and found this particular scene.  I immediately knew this was the image I would use.  First off, I think the black and white and simple stick figures fit perfectly for the ending of a presentation.  I wanted to end with something simple, yet memorable.  Additionally, the text encapsulates, in a way, how humanity in general views consciousness.  Even though we as a species understands its presence and, to some extent, function, we know so little about it.  We come up with ideas like emergence to explain it, but in the end it is still this beautiful, enigmatic thing (for lack of better word) that every person experiences.

If I were to re-do the pecha kucha, I would attempt to make the slides more than just eye-candy, but rather make them central to the argument – something that I wouldn’t say is true for the majority of my slides.  I think this is a byproduct of writing the script before finding the pictures, unfortunately.  I do, however, think that having a solid script was the most important part of the presentation, and I am very happy with the way mine turned out.

Why we need NASA

Pecha-Kucha Presentation by Norris Nicholson


I have had a strong interest in space my entire life. Perhaps because of my parents, or perhaps because it is something that I thoroughly enjoy. Regardless, choosing a topic was fairly easy because I am passionate about the space program. Overall, the presentation was not that difficult to produce and I enjoyed researching the effects that it had on US culture. I split the presentation up into 20 parts and tailored each to the image that was to be displayed.

ShuttleThis image works well with my presentation because I discuss how the space program is viewed as impractical and unproductive towards society. The image above helps to show the audience the magnificence of the program, in contrast to my description of public perception. The idea here is to highlight the public’s idea of what space is, versus the magnificence the program can bring. As such, this image appeals to pathos in the audience.

Another Image in the presentation that appeals to pathos is the following picture of Space Mountain in Disney World.

Space MountianMany people have been to Disney World and, assumably, most of them remember it with pleasant memories. This slide is important to the overall presentation because it relates the effects of the space program to the memories that many of us experienced as children. Personally, every time I see Space Mountain I remember it with nothing but fond memories. The architecture of space mountain was a direct influence of the space program, and this fact is effect at linking it with each member of the audience. While there are many many other examples of space culture to choose from, Space Mountain offers a solid and emotional linkage from the space program to the lives of the audience.

Similarly, the slide that contained this image appealed to our connection with the space program:

CircutBecause so much of our modern computational technology originated with the space program, computers seemed like a logical place to connect the audience with the space program. Many of us (if not all) are dependent on computers in everyday life. By linking computers with the space program’s R&D, a logical linkage between the presentation and audience can be made.

Finally, the last slide in the presentation evokes a sense of excitment in those who see it.

StationBy highlighting the beauty of space, and the wonder that shadows it, a large emotional connection to the program can form. This slide was timed so that it was present when I made a final claim about the importance of the space program as it relates to the world of tomorrow. This image effectively conveys my argument because of the stark contrast between the beautiful blue planet and the small space station, suggesting that space is the next step in human exploration.

The presentation was both interesting and exciting for me to produce, and I made a solid attempt to support my argument with both facts from my speech and visual appeals to emotion through the images in each slide.

Culture of NYC reflected in the Subway

Pecha Kucha by Devan Sconzo



Selecting a topic for my presentation was fairly easy, the difficulty came in narrowing down what I should discuss. I knew that I could easily relate culture with my home in New York City but the hard part was how to specify this. With such a broad spectrum, I felt like there was too much to cover because I initially planned to talk about NYC as a whole. After looking up different pictures of Broadway, Times Square and the typical tourist attractions, I came across this image of the crowded subway trains.

I thought about how I spent 2 hours sitting on the train just to get to school everyday and I had seen a lot pass through. I realized that this was the topic that I would be able to discuss in depth because of my firsthand account. I thought that a good way to relate culture would be through art. This was my initial argument for my Pecha-Kucha. However, as I searched through images of graffiti covered trains, I noticed that the pictures were mainly just from the 70’s through the 90’s. Most trains nowadays are fairly clean and don’t have nearly as much tagging as back then. I switched my train of thought again and decided that I could have a stronger argument for culture on the subway if I showed how the atmosphere and appearance of train cars changed as society progressed through the decades.

The focus of the presentation then began to branch out from art to history. The subway connects New York in more ways than just commuting. This opened up a lot of new ideas for what I could include. I thought about how different disasters really changed the feel of the people’s emotions in the atmosphere. A lot of my parents and teachers always talked about how drastic the difference was in people’s behavior after the 9/11 attacks. I remember getting to school 5 hours late one day after Hurricane Sandy because we were stuck on the newly re-routed trains and I could feel that sense of culture within the mutual feelings of people in the car. I thought that another huge way the subway connects people, sometimes subconsciously, is through advertising. There are always jokes in social media about the ads that everyone sees on the train. I felt like they all had something to say about the direction of New York City and wanted to talk about something that is sometimes glanced over. Throughout the process, the focus of my argument did sway a few times but overall I felt like I was able to cover a lot of material on how the subway creates and holds the culture of the city.