Usage of the Hawk-Eye Challenge System and its Consequences

Usage of the Hawk-Eye Challenge System and its Consequences

The hawk-eye challenge system used in tennis has caused controversy in the sport for many years. Tennis critics have gone back and forth a multitude of times about this topic. While one side fights for the system, the other side finds faults in it. Personally, I believe the hawk-eye challenge system in tennis takes away from the sanctity of the game. Originally players made their own calls or officials/referees would do that for them. Now, the hawk-eye challenge system has caused these old habits to dissipate due to players’ and officials’ heavy reliance on the system.

Almost every tennis fan, or follower, of the sport tennis, knows, or at least is aware of, the hawk-eye system. But for those that don’t, the hawk-eye system is a “tennis officiating system” (Hawk-Eye Innovations Ltd) that was made to serve the players and take the burden of missed or faulty line calls off of the officials and players. This line calling is said to be very precise with a “mean error of only 3.6mm” (Hawk-Eye Innovations Ltd). Although this system offers other high-tech resources, this one is the main issue and holds the most aforementioned “controversy”.

For starters, only professionals and high-level juniors have access to this challenge system. Even amongst these professionals and juniors, not all of them are equally given the opportunity to play with the assistance of this system. That being said, it’s a good thing that not many players have been dependent on this. In the past when this technology wasn’t available, amateurs and most professional players were forced to make their own line calls. When the competitive nature got out of hand because of these line calls, assistance from officials would be called on. The more elite professionals had access to full-time, on court officials, who made the line calls for them. In both cases though, humans made line calls.

With the hawk-eye challenge system, time, attention, and focus is taken away from the game when the decision to challenge a call has to be made. “Players have unlimited opportunity to challenge, but once three incorrect challenges are made in a set, they cannot challenge again until the next set.” (Barnett) In other words, as long as correct challenges are being made, there can be multiple breaks within a game solely due to line call challenges. As a fan and participant of the sport, I know that challenges don’t occur as frequently as the word “unlimited” seems to imply, but nonetheless, the challenges have become a greater part of the game now that one can replay the shot with this system.


The image above, taken from the official website for Technology at the Australian Open, shows the statistics for challenges made in singles play throughout the Australian Open tournament this year, 2014. As can be seen, the number of total challenges is extremely high. Since there’s no actual average time recording how long each challenge takes, we must approximate. As a tennis player, a conservative estimate for the time taken for each challenge is 30 seconds. With this in mind, accounting for women’s challenges alone, approximately 190 minutes, a little over 3 hours, of match time was wasted in this tournament. This shows the system’s lack of efficiency or regard for time because time would’ve been cut down to 10 seconds if a call was just made by the player or official.


Another thing that illustrates the hawk-eye challenge system’s effects or setbacks to the game is the effort and strategizing that is placed behind decisions to challenge. Depending on how important the point is, players choose their decision to challenge accordingly. Since deciding when a point is important enough to challenge is very subjective, Tristan Barnett defined what an “important point” consists of. His definition stated that the importance of a point could be differentiated by “how much difference will result in the outcome of the match depending on whether a point is won or lost.” With this definition in mind, players are faced with making this decision every time they contemplate if challenging a call is the right move. The image above depicts specific statistics about the importance of points in different situations and parts of a match. Considering most players aren’t fully aware or do not know this data off the tops of their heads, especially not in matches which tend to be intense and competitive, they must weigh the pros and cons of their choice to challenge each and every time.

Players also have to ration their challenges since only three incorrect ones are given each set. If one runs out of challenges at a critical point in the match, the result of the match can be affected. This leads to a shift in focus during matches. One wrong decision, especially at a pivotal point in the match, can and will change the mindset of a player. This shift in focus forces players to take attention away from finding ways to win the match and placing it in less important things such as challenge making. Without the hawk-eye challenge system, this could be avoided. The main priority that should trump everything else, winning the match, would be deemed critical once again. Distractions or deviations, from line calls and choosing to challenge a call, wouldn’t exist to the degree that they do with the system.

Granted, all aspects of the hawk-eye system aren’t defective. One that argues for the system can make a valid point that the system reduces the chance of human error. As aforementioned, the mean error for the system’s line calling is a mere 3.6mm. In contrast, players and officials tend to miss many line calls, whether done on accident or done so purposefully. The system does get the closest to avoiding this problem. With this being said, the challenge system can only help avoid human error when the player chooses to use it. If a faulty call is made by a player or the official and isn’t challenged, the system’s presence serves no purpose.

A huge role model and well-known tennis player, Roger Federer, has similar views about the hawk-eye system. Never a proponent of the system, he stated “ …People today don’t lose any energy over arguing with umpires any more, which back in the day we used to. I think also their mental strength came into play more often. Now you just move from point to point to point so you don’t see that much character any more.” (Cronin) In other words, the lengths players used to go to to win a match, like arguing over line calls with officials, are no longer apparent, at least not to the extent they used to be. In accordance with Federer’s statements, the previous argument made about misplaced focus is evident when compared to pre-hawk-eye times.

The hawk-eye system retracts from the main reason the game is played, to win at all costs. Although officials have always been there, players are expected to find ways to win on their own or only with their team. The sport is meant to push athletes to various mental heights, as well as physical ones, during the match. The hawk-eye system works to lessen a player and official’s job or responsibility during competition. Yes, this can be beneficial, but more importantly, it causes the sport to be a bit easier. Players can rely on the system to help them compete. Originally considered an individual sport, the hawk-eye challenge system directs the player’s concentration to an issue other than winning the match, challenging line calls.

Works Cited Page

“Challenge Stats.” Challenge Stats. Tennis Australia, 1996-2014. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.


Cronin, Matt. “Federer: Hawk-Eye Detracts from Sport.” Federer: Hawk-Eye Detracts from        Sport., 2014. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.


“Tennis.”; Hawk-Eye. Hawk-Eye Innovations Ltd, 2007-2014. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.


“The Impact of the Hawk-Eye System in Tennis.” Trainingwithjames. N.p., 2012. Web. 26 Nov.             2014.









Kyoto Protocol – Was it effective?

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We went about selecting a topic by first comparing both of our Pecha-Kucha topics. We landed up on transportation but we were not interested in pursuing that route. Hence, we brainstormed a little more and landed on the topic of pollution. Initially, we had considered doing a wide umbrella infographic on all the different types of pollution but we decided that that was too broad and that we would get in deeper. That’s when we settled on doing our infographic on the ineffectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. We felt that this topic would have allowed us to make a better work since this topic has statistics to support both sides of the argument. The importance of this topic is also enhanced by the fact that the Kyoto Protocol expired in 2012 which calls for new international movements to curb environmental damage. 

When we started our research on this topic, we were rather stumped as there were numerous resources each presenting different types of data in relation to the Kyoto Protocol. We had trouble picking out the pieces of data we felt were important. Eventually, we picked out the pieces of information that we felt would complement each other to give rise to one coherent argument. Our argument was done on a step by step basis. For instance, we started off with the goal of the Kyoto Protocol and then went on to show a world map with the countries participating in this treaty along with the restrictions that were imposed on them. It showed how the Kyoto Protocol ended up being inefficient in the commitment phase itself. After that we went on to show other the data relating to important regions or important economical statistics which attacked the implementation phase of the Kyoto Protocol. We ended of our infographic with a chart putting the actual change in carbon emissions till 2012 side by side with the expected results through the Kyoto Protocol which shows that the Kyoto Protocol failed in its ultimate goal as well.


Since we took such an approach with our argument, the design and images we used were really structured as well. Our infographic has linear regressions graphs and bar charts to show a before and after analysis which we felt strengthened our argument. One of the main images in our infographic would be the world map. It utilizes pleasant colors and is at the core of the infographic which helps draw attention to it. It also has a legend which is easy to understand. Another image that helps our infographic would be the cartoon humans used to represent how the emission per capita data has changed over the years. The use of the color red to represent the 2012 human serves to show how we are currently more dangerous to the environment. This contrasts with the 4 other blue humans who weren’t as harmful to the environment .

We put in much thought into our choice of colors as well. We adopted a main color code throughout the infographic: Blue being good and red being bad. We used this to make our presentation simple to understand. Our background color was green which complements the other colors in our infographic and is very soothing to the eyes.

Our main audience would be the general population out there on the internet with a preference for those who have basic background knowledge about the Kyoto Protocol. We aim to appeal to them with this infographic using our condensed statistics. We aim to educate them about how the Kyoto Protocol has fallen short so that they can have critical ideas about future environmental treaties.


Stefano Travaglino, Shraeyas Margan



Japanese Earthquake


Our infographic focuses on the Japanese earthquakes. We uses 2011 Tōhoku earthquake — the biggest earthquake in Japanese history and third biggest earthquake in the world — as the major example to illustrate our topic. The audience of infographic is not only focused on citizens of Japan, but also the world population. While we are showing the damage and facts of the earthquake, we also want to raise people’s awareness of earthquake. Only when people know how to calmly react to an earthquake can they survive.

The three picture we choose are connected to each other, so audience can have an easier understanding on the theme we try to present on the infographic. The first picture on the top right explains the major cause of Japanese earthquakes. The areas of Japanese earthquakes are strongly related to the Ring of Fire. The Ring of Fire is a large underwater volcano which is in a horseshoe shape. The Ring of Fire extends through the whole globe, and the whole Japan lays on the top of this underwater volcano. The strong seismic activities is the reason that cause all the Japan earthquakes. The picture in the middle of the infographic displays the number of earthquakes occurring on each day in March 2011. We chose this picture because it was on March 11th when the Tōhoku earthquake occurred. The picture on the left bottom is a map with different color dots, and each dot represents the place where earthquakes occur in Japan. These pictures shows facts of Japanese earthquakes from different perspectives. Through these pictures, we want to draw people’s attention of the seriousness of the earthquake. Unlike some other natural disaster, earthquakes have the ability to affect the whole world by a single strike. The increase in the awareness of earthquake can help people find out the solution in a quicker manner.

Japanese government has imposed measures to create more resilient buildings in many known disaster zones in response to the earthquakes. Families in Japan have been asked to keep a survival kit containing water and food that can help them live for a few days, a flashlight, a radio and a first aid kit. People are also instructed not to place heavy objects where they would drop during a earthquake and cause injury. Other than the efforts that governments are making, citizens should know basic ways of surviving in an earthquake, too. This is what we are showing in the two pictures on the bottom right: two useful ways to survive when an earthquake occurs.

Not All Animals are Created Equal


We decided to do our infographic on animal intelligence since we were interested in finding out which animals are the “Smartest”. What we found was surprising, since some animals, such as squirrels, we did not expect to be extremely intelligent. However, after determining the “Smartest Animals” and doing more in depth research on them we found that many of them are very gifted intellectually. For example, many of them can comprehend language, experience a range of emotions, and are extremely adaptive and creative.

Originally, we were attempting to create an infographic from scratch but opted to use one of Piktochart’s templates. We thought the template better organized our ideas by adding a flow to the infographic that the original attempt did not have. The template design also kept our text on each animal briefer, which will allow the reader to finish the infographic before he or she loses attention. The project was worked on collaboratively, with both group members having input on the design and content of the infographic. We also worked together on settling on a choosing a template and settling on a template design.

This infographic is designed to educate our audience on the intelligence of various animals as well as argue that animal intelligence is more varied and advanced than many think. Our intended audience is all those who use the internet and may have an interest in animals. Our infographic describes each animal’s intelligence in simple and easy to understand attributes that the animal possesses. This ensures that anyone who happens upon our infographic is able to understand and learn from it. Although the information is easy to understand, we think it will be new information to many readers. We had no idea that animals such as crows and pigs were considered among the smartest animals, and our infographic will be useful to others like us who didn’t know this. Our design features a line that guides the reader’s attention through the infographic in increasing order of intelligence of the animals.  In this way, the infographic design displays the animals in order of increasing intelligence, without it needing to be explicitly stated in words. The thumbnail images of the animals, called poly images, were chosen because they are clear and simple depictions of the animals that quickly present the animal being described. They allow a reader to see the topic of the infographic by glancing over it and may help draw a reader’s attention. The darkening shade of blue for the border of each animal as the reader progresses toward the end of the infographic is another design feature that communicates without using words. The darker the shade of blue, the more intelligent the animal is considered to be.


Immigrants and Small Businesses


Our infographic illustrates data about the foreign demographics of top cities in the US and the industries they own. The research process was quite lengthy, but the data we were able to find was exactly what we were looking for (in most cases)! With our alternate data, we had to find a new way to organize our graphics, and, in the end, the graphic only became more interesting and appealing. The intended audience is our class: a group of people with general knowledge about this topic, but nothing as specific as our infographic presented. As we learned more about the subject, we came to realize that immigrants and potential immigrants could learn a great deal from our infographic. Seeing how successful and common immigrant owned businesses are can be a source of strength and confidence.

To produce our infographic, changing our research into a visual form, took some time as well. We spent some time discussing what we wanted our infographic to portray and how we wanted it to be done. Everything placed on the infographic was done so deliberately, such as the colors, layout, and representation of the actual data, etc. First off, the colors chosen for each city were strategically chosen. Rather than choosing generic colors, we chose colors such as Statue of Liberty green for New York and the Golden Gate Bridge’s international orange for San Francisco. As for the placement and layout, we chose to use the US map instead of listing data points or laying them out in a grid in order to present a more organic and accurate portrayal  of our facts. We designed the industries of immigrant businesses as to be the focal points of our image. Originally, they were meant to be in the background, while currency would be placed in front of it for the various foreigners. After attempting to signify nations by their currency, it was evident that it would be too visually busy and the lack of recognition would have resulted in referencing the key too often. We did this because our topic heavily emphasizes foreigner owners of businesses in their respective cities. It only made sense to adjust our layout to highlight the important data points that are associated with businesses.

Unfortunately, we couldn’t put everything we envisioned into pixels but the things we did put on it was done so with those previous plans in mind. We made decisions by brainstorming out loud and openly, constructively criticizing each other’s points. If we both agreed on an idea, it was placed on the final infographic.

Vooha Vellanki + Spencer Wilson



New York City:



San Francisco:


Should You go to College?


We decided to make an infographic on whether a student who graduated from high school should go to college or not. Initially, we thought of picking a topic which compared and contrasted Georgia Tech and UGA in order to bring to light some of the lesser known facts about the two colleges. We came up with a plan as to how to go about making the infographic and even began making it. However, while we were making it we realized that the topic as such didn’t make an argument. We decided to go off on a tangent of why we decided to make an argument between Georgia Tech and UGA to choose our topic- whether one should attend college or not. There are many students who think twice before going to college. One thing to note is that a college degree isn’t cheap. Many high school graduates are under the impression that they can get high paying jobs only if they spend a lot of money on college tuition. We decided to test this idea and discovered shocking results. Our infographic is thus targeted towards seniors who just finished high school and are deciding the next big step in their lives. Three aspects that made up a major part of the infographic were the rhetorical and slightly satirical questions, the pie charts, and the comparison of the information with a student graduating from Georgia Tech. We decided to add questions within the flow chart to allow people viewing the infographic to relate to the information being presented to them. By asking questions, the person can receive the information that he or she wants to know quickly. Thus the infographic is effective in delivering the information necessary to the audience. We made the pie charts to show the percentage of people in the united states who had different types of degrees. The graphs give people an insight into different types of jobs that they can think of pursuing in the long term in cases where college may not be the best option. Finally, we decided to compare all the information that we put up with the average starting salary for a person with an undergraduate degree in Georgia Tech. Georgia Tech is considered as one of the top colleges in the US to give the most financial return on the amount spent on attending college.We found that there were many jobs that didn’t require a bachelors degree that ended up paying more than a degree from Tech. We used this information to tie in the argument made in our infographic- a college degree doesn’t necessarily mean a higher pay.

The Ultimate Game



Our Infographic was based off of a mutual interest in Ultimate Frisbee and Disc Golf. We decided to look at the history of these two sports and how they have changed since their creation. We also wanted to look into the statistics of the people who play these sports and how they compare to those of the general census. At first our infographic really lacked purpose and was just kind of a bunch of data and didn’t really serve a purpose. So by analyzing the data that we had collected we realized that there were certain groups that these two different sports fell into. Ultimate Frisbee is most likely to be found among younger adults and college students. Disc Golf, however, is typically going to be played by men over women.

Our infographic would be interesting and useful to someone who came across it on the internet because it is a topic that is rarely talked about. This infographic causes the readers to think about learning to play ultimate frisbee or disc golf because they have never played it before. Our infographic would be especially interesting to people that had thought about playing these sports but didn’t look into it because they are outside the typical group of people who play it. We would imagine our audience to be anywhere from preteens to senior adults. The point of our infographic is that a wide variety of people would see it and take interest in participating in these two relatively new and fun sports.

The design choices should appeal to our audience because while they are attractive and eye-catching they are very neutral in the fact that they don’t appeal to any certain group. Unlike a lot of infographics that may draw women vs. men or young vs. older people, this infographic is interesting for all people. Our ideas for this infographic developed from the research we did and the information we could find. It grew from the purpose that we outlined for our infographic and needed to fulfill. The group made decisions by each member bringing up their own ideas and information and then we would decide together what the best idea was to make the presentation. The presentation used graphs and fun icons to catch a readers eye and show the statistics better than what could be done in a paragraph format. It is easier to get the info in a quick graph than an author listing the different statistics.


The Battle of the Smartphones (LG G3 vs iPhone 6 plus)

infographic project

For our infographic, we chose to contrast the iPhone 6 plus and the LG G3 phones, with the LG G3 being the superior. We chose this as our topic because a common concern with phone buyers nowadays is whether or not the iPhone is actually a better phone. In reality, as our infographic depicts, the LG G3 has far better qualities than the iPhone. One section of our infographic shows the camera quality of the two phones. The amount of megapixels of the LG G3 is significantly more than that of the iPhone 6 plus. As people in this day and age have found that taking pictures and videos on their phones is far more convenient than taking them on a separate camera, the want for a phone with a great quality camera has become a deciding factor when purchasing a new phone. Our graph clearly shows the camera of the LG G3 is far superior to the camera on the iPhone 6 plus. In another section of our infographic, we show a comparison of the RAM each type of phone contains. The comparison shows that, again, the LG G3 is much better than the iPhone 6 plus in terms of RAM. The bigger the amount of RAM a phone has will speed up the time it takes to change apps or switch programs. This causes the LG G3 to be much more efficient than the iPhone 6 plus. Another section of our infographic contrasts the size of each type of phone in terms of weight. Today, everyone is most concerned with convenience. With both phones being the same size in length, weight matters to customers much more than normal. With a lighter phone, it is more accessible and easier to carry around with someone all day long. Our graph shows the iPhone 6 plus to be significantly heavier than the LG G3, making it more of a hassle to access and carry. Our infographic will be useful to people who might come across it on the internet because debating whether or not the Apple iPhone is the best phone to purchase on the market is a very common occurrence in households today. Whenever someone goes to purchase a new phone they question their best choice. In the past few years, the purchasing of phones that are not iPhones is increasing very rapidly. For this reason, I see our audience being any person, anywhere, looking at buying a new phone and looking for their best option. Our design choices will further persuade the viewer that the iPhone may not always be the best option. We use more than words to persuade our viewers by the use of our many charts and visuals. The color scheme uses fun colors that further captivate our viewer’s attention. It took a while for us to decide on a topic because we struggled to find one that was argumentative, but, as we thought, this is the most common debate in today’s society that the infographic came fairly easily after finding this topic.

The Changing Culture of YouTube


In our infographic, we decided to research the changing culture of YouTube and its causes/effects. For our template, we went about a slightly unconventional way to present ours, as we used a standard YouTube screen after a video has been done playing. We did so because this screen is one most people are familiar with, especially the audience that this infographic caters toward. The audience we imagine are people on the internet and social media users who are already somewhat familiar with the concept of YouTube. The purpose of our infographic is to display how YouTube has changed culturally since the development of advertisements and the increase in major corporate companies’ involvement with the site over time.

We purposely placed the graph of “Most Shared YouTube Videos by Genre” directly next to the social media options shown on the YouTube screen. We did this because of the direct relationship between the two. The information about advertisements was strategically where some ads have been known to be shown. This first gives the viewer a sense of the history of advertisements on YouTube. The graph below the ad information goes hand in hand with the timeline that parallels it on the right side. After looking at the advertisement information first, their thoughts while looking at the most viewed videos timeline will be influenced, as they will see the correlation between the prevalence of advertisements and the money-making methods, and the types of videos that obtain the most views. The timeline of videos with the most views each year is placed where the suggested videos would normally be. This is also placed there, again, because of the effect this would have on viewers who see the information about advertisements first, and read the descriptions given.

We decided to focus on the change on the nature of YouTube because of the site’s incredible growth over the years, and the reasons for this. Our infographic would be useful to people who come across it on the web because it would give him or her a quick glimpse at another perspective on how YouTube has changed culturally. The bold-faced numbers in the blocks on the video screen quickly draw the viewer in, and the descriptions under them give them knowledge of some short yet significant facts regarding to the changes YouTube has underwent. Our infographic uses more than words to convey our claim by showing a large amount of numbers in statistical form. This data helps make our infographic achieve its purpose because of the strong relationship between data and culture. By using chronological graphs and  data, we were able to better depict the content and strengthen our argument through evidence.

Connor Schembor and Shi Yu Liu

Georgia Tech and “The Ratio”

Ratio Inforgraphic



We are both very happy with how our infographic turned out. Choosing the topic of the infographic went smoothly: we are of different genders, we both are involved with the social and Greek life on Georgia Tech campus, and we are both aware of the ratio stigma placed on the school. We chose our infographic to shed some light on the gender ratio to those who may not be so educated about it, and convince those reading that attending Georgia Tech is a very good idea. The information was quickly found: Georgia Tech’s fact books from years past proved to be a very useful source of this information, and websites from Georgia Techs recruitment programs was very clear. We hope that any audience that finds our infographic, especially women searching for a university to spend the next four years of her life, would know more about the ratio’s history, its current state, and how Georgia Tech is moving toward a more balanced student body. Megan beautifully designed the infographic’s style: the colors, the shapes, the fonts, and the layout of the information. The combination of blue and pink colors, with cursive and delicate fonts alongside thick and powerful fonts, serve to emphasize the balance between feminine themes and masculine themes. This adds to the overall flow of the infographic, and is also very pleasing to read. Making all the graphs very colorful and spatial allows for the infographic’s information easy to visualize and easy to read. It may be difficult to understand what a student body of 61% men and 39% women is like, but with the infographic’s design, you can get a better picture of what that statistic says in real-life groupsThe biggest struggle about our infographic was finding a strong and specific argument. We wanted to inform the audience about the ratio, but it was difficult to turn that information around and say “This is why you should care about the history and current state of the ratio.” After discussing over the span of a few group meetings, we decided to make the argument that the gender ratio at Georgia Tech can be misunderstood, it has been getting better, and because of the programs for women outreach and recruitment it is a very good idea for women and men alike to attend Georgia Tech. By adding the programs at the bottom of the infographic and stating the information about current state of affairs in a positive light, we make the argument convincingly. Our decisions were very balanced, concerned the interests of both parties, and evolved the infographic effectively and positively. We both are very proud of our infographic, and hope it convinces future women and men to become Yellow Jackets! 


Works Cited

“Georgia Tech Fact Book.” Georgia Tech. Georgia Tech, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

“2014 Entering Freshmen Class.” Admissions. Georgia Tech, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

“Women@Tech.” Women’s Resource Center. Georgia Tech, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.



A Tale of Two Legends: Brady vs Manning

Brady vs. Manning (1)

The purpose of our infographic is to provide information on one of the biggest topics in the NFL every year: who’s better, Tom Brady or Peyton Manning. Both of us (Eric and I) are huge football fans, and since the two quarterbacks just played each other, the idea came to us fairly quickly. We tried to make the infographic convey our feelings that Brady is the better quarterback in the most unbiased way possible; we showed that Peyton Manning has the edge in career statistics Brady is superior when it comes to wins, especially in the playoffs.

The audience that this infographic is designed for is any NFL fan on the internet. Every year when the two quarterbacks play each other, the debate is brought up: which quarterback is better? Most people just hear about all of the records Peyton Manning is breaking and just assume that because of that Manning is the better quarterback. Our infographic is designed to show the opposing side that while Manning’s stats are better, Brady wins much more than Manning.

One of the design choices we made was to display Super Bowl wins, MVPs, First Team All-Pro appearances, and Pro Bowl selections using an icon chart. We used this particular chart for this data to show their frequencies for each selection relative to one another. Rather than just saying Manning was selected for the Pro Bowl 13 times, the value of the number 13 is shown with icons versus Brady’s 9 selections. This effect is seen for all four statistics.

Another design that was used was bar graphs. These devices were used for career statistics which were passing yards, passing touchdowns, interceptions, and passer rating. The bar graphs displayed this information more effectively because in this case, we were dealing with numbers in the hundreds and thousands. The bar graphs were not only able to successfully display the largeness of the numbers but also allow the audience to compare the statistics to each other.

A third design that we used was pie charts. This device was used to display head to head matchups during their NFL careers and postseason careers. The pie chart was used as the visual for this statistic because it was able to demonstrate the win-loss record. When the audience views the pie charts, they are able to see not only how little Manning has won against Brady, but also how much he has lost to him, and vice versa. This gives the audience a better perspective on the rivalry.

Link to infographic:

The Evolution of Dating: Looking for Love Online by Grace Pak and Kristen Ingram

Evolution of Dating (1)


The infographic above  argues that the increasing use of the internet in the 21st century has consequently caused an increase in users who have logged in to find love. There were three goals in mind when selecting a topic for this infographic. The first goal was to create an infographic that was visually appealing. It was concluded that this goal could only be accomplished if the topic of the infographic was interesting to a widespread audience. That led us to the second goal- to appeal to as large of an audience as possible. If students on campus were headed to class, how many of them would take a second out of their day to stop and look at this infographic? The final goal was to present our argument on the infographic in such a way that it is contestable yet still very convincing. After beginning to compile facts and transfer them to the infographic itself, it was clear that these three goals were complementary to each other. If one goal was not met, i.e. not visually appealing, it became very difficult to complete the other goals, i.e. appeal to a large audience. For this reason, when evaluating the successfulness of our infographic, it was crucial that all three goals were met.

The most difficult part of completing the infographic was selecting the topic. The original topic, very different from the final, was how kids spend time outside of class. Many additional topics were considered as well. However, as we kept the goals in mind, these topics were gradually eliminated because they were not able to satisfy all three goals. An infographic on the things that students do outside of the classroom cannot appeal to as large of an audience as an infographic about dating because a vast majority of adults are employed and no longer students. However, both students and adults who are no longer in school could potentially be dating, and if they are not, they once have in their lives.

The design of the infographic most closely relates to the topic. The color scheme is heavy in red and pink, two colors that represent love. Additionally, there are many electronic symbols that create an online feel for the infographic such as the mouse, the computer and the loading bar. To be visually appealing, we made sure a three color palette rather than rainbow palette was used. Contrasting colors, such as the light pink and the blue, were used versus colors that were too similar. Simple styles and similar proportions were used in the body of the infographic making it easy to read.  A logical flow was created but it was not too cluttered and background space was shown making the infographic appear organized.


Blogs: This Is the End!

Well it’s finally over: the dreaded blogs that we have come to like are all finished and accounted for (I hope). I completed all five blogs, with three experiential and two reading-response, and I must say I’ve been pleased, for the most part, with my content and ability to stay on topic or within the rubric! I made 17 comments throughout the semester, and honestly pleased with my content.

So I updated one of my experiential posts about a poster titled “No More Killing.” Here is a link to the updated post:

I didn’t make many changes to this blog, but the few that I made were very important. First: I simply cleaned it up. Not really affecting the material, I changed the sentences around a bit, played with the grammar, and hopefully made it easier to understand. It goes without saying that getting your idea across to the reader in the best way possible helps your credibility, the readers opinion of you, and also the reader’s willingness to keep reading. I could write a sentence, full of imaginative words or vocabulary that span the entirety of multiple rows in a blog post in an attempt to impress those who–before they started reading–thought me to be a person with little understanding of fundamental grammar and sentence structure and those who themselves are not particularly confident in their ability to articulate such complex and therefore marvelous sentences, but that would be a waste of my time and the reader’s. What’s important? Short and to the point. I change my sentences around to make them easier to understand. That leads me to the second revision I made: the content. I read my post with disgust, so I definitely needed to update with better information. Instead of harping again and again on little parts of the poster in an immature attempt to bump up the word count, I focused more on how each main parts of the poster would affect the readers interpretation of it. Although this did cut down on my word count, it made my material denser and better. I spent more time on the statistic and on the implications of comparing smoking deaths to 9/11, which gives the blog post a more in-depth understanding of what this poster says. Personally, I think the context is very important to understanding this advertisement.

My two best posts have been “Knowing What the Future Entails, Or At Least Guessing Right” and “For the Love of Physics, and Teaching.”


I continue to like “Knowing What the Future Entails” because I still feel like I got my point across in a quick blog post that seems to be easy follow. I must also point out in the most humble way that I was right. The author of the infographic argued that Maglev trains were not going to be available for quite a while, but in fact Japan’s Maglev train carried its first passengers today!


The author didn’t do his research, and if you read my blog, you can understand what he missed, what he should have done, and my prediction that in fact was correct as of today.

I like “For the Love of Physics, and Teaching” because I did a good job of keeping it straight to the point. We were basically required to analyze the WOVEN parts of a lecture or some other speech-like video. Despite my blog being somewhat cookie-cutter, I would argue that it’s more effective that way. Not only does it keep the points and total purpose of the blog clear and obvious, but it makes it easier to read. Nobody wants to read a blog post in which the author drones on and on in an unrelated introduction. I kept it simple and clear: the professor uses every part of WOVEN, and here’s how.

I have an interesting opinion on these blog posts. As far as being forced to comment on people’s blog, I didn’t like it. As far as being forced to reply to any comments on my own blog, I actually liked it. It was difficult to read and try to get interested in other peoples’ blog. Maybe this was because of poor writing or inadequate hooks? Probably not. I would bet that I didn’t really care before I even starting writing. When it comes to replying to comments on my own blogs, however,  I would probably reply to them even if you didn’t make me. Especially if the comment argued against my claims in the blog.

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This post is something to laugh at. I did have a few things to say, but this whole comment just looks like fluff in my mind today. I would still agree that people are overreacting to social media history, but the way I chose to elaborate on it was just stupid. I should have included some examples and possibly some different points supporting the thought that people are overreacting to social media. Also, I think the last two sentences are freaking hilarious! What does that mean?! Am I a philosopher or something?!

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I think this is one of my better comments. I am very interested in the whole Fergusen fiasco, and I remember seeing this post and becoming very interested. I was also glad to point out a comment that argues against what Kristen wanted to say. I had substantial background information about the situation, so I feel like I could formulate a solid argument with solid facts to clarify the comment. The grammar seems fine. Sentence structure and overall expression of ideas seems good to me, so I would submit this as a good comment.

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This is my reply to Megan A’s comment on my post “No More Killing.” I didn’t have much to say for this one, but it does characterize me as a bad blogger, because I continued to add information and points (my opinions mostly) in the comment section. I should have paid more attention to her comment and keep it on track. If I wanted to add more information or more of my senseless rambling, I should have just updated the blog.

The Term ‘Progressive’


My experiment consisted of seeing the evolution of the term ‘Progressive’ through time. There’s been a shift in the ideology of what constitutes an educated person. A nation’s wealth is indirectly determined by the level of education of their citizens. During the Renaissance , Europe was termed ‘Progressive’ for its large number of artists, philosophers, and historians. As times changed so did the meaning of a progressive nation.

Earlier, people studied history and art to widen their knowledge and scope of the world in general,   thus becoming more ‘advanced’. Art was important during the Renaissance period, and we can see that on the chart. Artists like Michelangelo, and Leonardo Da Vinci revolutionized the world of art. Thus we find that the word ‘art’ popped up a lot and later began to decrease gradually.

The word technology was unheard of until the 1900s when we entered the ‘Technology Age’. Thus the term couldn’t have popped up in books at an earlier time. Technology came to play in the 1900s, and today we find that a college student with no coding experience is almost unheard of. Nations are now ranked by their advancement in technology. With more research in this field, there are thus more books with the theme ‘technology’.

History and Science have been steady throughout time. Both remain an important aspect of education and any other book, whether it be history textbooks, historical fiction or science fiction novels. We see that some words constituted greater value at different time periods while some remained a constant throughout time.

The Economy through Ngram lenses.

ngramMy little Ngram ‘research’ was focused on the economy, and in particular to bad economy and moments of hardship. The words I searched for were those which could be used the most, in the English language, to describe the economy from the perspective of people. Those are not supposed to be economic indexes, which, by the way, were adopted too recently to have any statistical value in a tool such as Google Ngram.

Even without being a conventional method to assess the health of the economy, I think it does a very good job at describing it, at least for the past 100 years.

What I must say, though, is that this data did not really give us any new information. Almost every trend could have been predicted just looking at history and real data. This is an important failure of Ngram viewer, namely its inability to provide new meaningful insights in the vast majority of cases.

Let’s take the unemployment first. We can see it spike at around the date of the Great Depression, growing by three folds its level in 1925. What I did not expect was the fact that it started growing fast in 1925, while I thought it should have started after 1929, following the financial crisis, not preceding it by half a decade. The same goes for the word depression: it is hard to see any possible reason for it to spike in 1925 when the word ‘Great Depression’ still had to be coined.

All of my indicators had a local maximum in the 30s as expected, in fact, the effects of the crisis lasted for an entire decade. They then started declining during WW2, and reached a minimum in the 1950s.

To this period of expansion and relative prosperity followed the subsequent crisis during the 70s, which overall was a time of stagnation. The situation worsened significantly in 1973 with the oil crisis, and after that it was all downhill, with the recurrence of our words peaking in 1981-1982.

The situation improved once again with the ‘Reagan revolution’ in the late 80s, and the usage of the query words kept dropping until the 2000s. I am really curious to see in 5 years or so if the words spiked again from the great recession in 2008, but I am very confident they will.

Something surprising is that the words ‘jobs’ and ‘unemployment’ barely existed before the 20th century. This might be a sign of a younger society, less money-centered, and focused on values other than growth and money making.

A Vegetarian, A Vegan And A Gluten Walk Into A Bar

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It seems like everyone knows someone that is a vegetarian, vegan or gluten free. You learn it quickly from going out to eat with them and them having to fill certain requirements and watch exactly what is in their food. It seems that this is a recent trend and so I was curious to use Google Ngram and see it I was right and if all these words were relatively low in percent until recently. I imagined that vegetarian would be higher than vegan and gluten but I didn’t except it to be so much higher. Vegetarian has been surprisingly growing for a while now after seeing major growth in the early and late 1900’s. It is seeing some very steep growth currently which is what i expected.

Vegan is something that I thought of as not really being a big thing except for in the past ten years. It kind of appeared to come off of the vegetarian movement. I was surprised to see that it had really started growing a little before this in the mid 1990’s. I would attribute the major growth in the use of vegan and vegetarian to the culture shift to a more environmentally friendly world. This has lead to people wanting to eat more organically and respect the world around them including the animals.

Gluten was a huge surprise for me. There were large amounts of growth in gluten during the 1800’s and I would have never expected that. However as I did research I discovered that Gluten was becoming a big item in pharmacy and medicine as well as agriculture.   The use of gluten has very much decreased since then but I would imagine that in a few years an increase in the use of gluten would be seen.

Data Across Many Languages

“Political forms subordinate narrative logic to the tempo of a short span, and thus they disappear with a short span.” Here the author explains how some works depend on the native language of style of that culture, and when it is translated it doesn’t always portray the same meaning or effect. The author uses an example of how hugely popular American comedies are less popular else where in the world. This is due to the fact that the jokes are not exactly the same when translated. Thus language is a major restriction or barrier when it comes to sharing data or information. A possible fix to this would be the use of a common language that would make things easier to share and thus communicate. This can be seen with the use of SI units for measurements. The failure to use a common language can result in major problems or consequences. A space mission, for example, failed because the scientists in one part of the project used different measurements than what the other scientist used. When they put their data together it caused the space shuttle to crash because the data didn’t match each other. While this may seem like the preferred method, it isn’t always the best case. Some things cannot be said in every language, and thus the use of multiple languages can be beneficial or sometimes even preferred. An example of this is the French phrase “deja vu.” This phrase is not easy to translate into English, and even when one tries the meaning is long and unclear. Instead, the use of this common phrase will only strengthen and summarize your argument with slight to almost no chance of someone not understanding what you’re trying to say. Multiple languages allow diversity and culture which can help lead to new unique thoughts and ideas. The use of a single language is simple and easy to communicate; however, the lack of cultures and ideas will prevent new thought and thus cause progress to die “with a short span.” Multiple languages on the other hand allows for thought to continually grow, and thus create progress throughout the ages.


Historians tend to focus on specific, impactful events in their research. Unfortunately, this approach looses much in its understanding of everyday life. Attempting to view the bigger picture as the sum of a series of significant events is inaccurate because it needs to be looked at completely if any accurate insight is to be gained. The history of novels displays the faults in only looking at some and not all.

As with any form of art, novels have had their highs and lows. The reasons for specific peaks and troughs are apparent: political insight, political repression, periods of exciting, new writers, periods of only reprints, and the list goes on and on. What is not so easily explained is the regularity of these events. The author, Moretti, then describes his goal to “explain the pattern as a whole, not just one of its phases” (13). To do this, there is a particular frame of reference one must inhabit. Focus too closely on the event and you understand flow but not its structure in relation to other events. Zoom out too far and you face the opposite problem, an understanding of the structure but not of the flow from one event to the next. A link between these two can be found in genres. A new genre “makes its appearance to replace an old form that has outlives its artistic usefulness” (Shkolvsky).

I find this incredibly interesting and insightful. Genres are telling of what readers, and culture at large, cares about at any given time. This also explains why no one genre can ever last forever. If a genre doesn’t change with the people it will go out of style. And, if it does change its form, then it can no longer be accurately described as the same genre. Even living in the moment, it is easy to track the growth in popularity of novel types such as vampire novels, or novels about young people fighting in a dystopian future. So if novels are a representation of our interests and values, how do enough people become interested in something?

Generations come to be when there is a shared experience between members regarding some part of life. It can be as extreme as being on a battlefield in World War II, or, in more recent years, kids who all acquired cell phones around the same time both have significantly different experiences because of the change. Whether it was firing a gun or sending a text, people want to relate to characters, and an easy way to accomplish that is by having them do the same thing readers are doing or have done. And, as the audience ages, a new group will come right into place with a value system of their own, and looking for a novel to reflect that.

A New Generation

In “Graphs, Maps, Trees” by Franco Moretti analyzes the rise and fall of novels throughout history, starting in the 1700’s. Although Moretti acknowledges historical events’ influences of novels, as well as other factors such as cost of paper and people’s preference for other forms of fiction other than novels, he mainly attributes these cyclical patterns to the popularity of different genres. As one genre’s “artistic usefulness” fades away, it becomes less popular, allowing for the growth of another genre. However, the genres’ cycles last 25-30 years, leading Moretti to believe different generations decide which genres rise and fall, and how long the process takes. Because several genres appear and die out together rather than separately, Moretti determines that “the causal mechanism must thus be external to the genres, and common to all:… a change of their audience” (20).

This claim, however, makes some underlying assumptions. Firstly, it assumes that each generation thinks differently than the one before it, that younger generations will not be influenced enough by the previous generation so that their thought processes differ enough to cause a shift in genre preference. However, it is safe to make this assumption for the most part, due to the large differences in generational thinking common throughout history that cause phenomena such as generation gaps.

I believe that Moretti is generally correct in his assumption that generations affect which genres become popular at what times. Each generation is influenced by different experiences, from the values of the generation before them to historical events. These such experiences affect the new generation’s characteristics and style. For example, those born in the era of World Wars and military prowess are likely to be very patriotic. Millennials, having grown up in an age of great advances in technology and around electronics, are likely to be more familiar with electronics and the globalization that modern technology brings about. Because each generation is so different due to the environment in which they grew up, they bring a new mentality as they emerge, altering which novels grow in popularity and which fade into obsoletion.